Bayesian methods in music modelling
This thesis presents several hierarchical generative Bayesian models of musical signals designed to improve the accuracy of existing multiple pitch detection systems and other musical signal processing applications whilst remaining feasible for real-time computation. At the lowest level the signal is modelled as a set of overlapping sinusoidal basis functions. The parameters of these basis functions are built into a prior framework based on principles known from musical theory and the physics of musical instruments. The model of a musical note optionally includes phenomena such as frequency and amplitude modulations, damping, volume, timbre and inharmonicity. The occurrence of note onsets in a performance of a piece of music is controlled by an underlying tempo process and the alignment of the timings to the underlying score of the music. A variety of applications are presented for these models under differing inference constraints. Where full Bayesian inference is possible, reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo is employed to estimate the number of notes and partial frequency components in each frame of music. We also use approximate techniques such as model selection criteria and variational Bayes methods for inference in situations where computation time is limited or the amount of data to be processed is large. For the higher level score parameters, greedy search and conditional modes algorithms are found to be sufficiently accurate. We emphasize the links between the models and inference algorithms developed in this thesis with that in existing and parallel work, and demonstrate the effects of making modifications to these models both theoretically and by means of experimental results.