Control for transient response of turbocharged engines
The concepts of engine downsizing and down-speeding offer reductions in CO2 emissions from passenger cars. These reductions are achieved by reducing pumping and friction losses at part-load operation. Conventionally, rated torque and power for downsized units are recovered by means of turbocharging. The transient response of such engines is, however, affected by the static and dynamic characteristics of the turbo-machinery. Recent advances in engine simulation and control tools have been employed for the purpose of the research reported in this thesis to identify and verify possible air-path enhancements. A systematic method for evaluating various turbocharger assistance concepts is proposed and discussed in this thesis. To ensure a fair comparison of selected candidate systems, an easily reconfigurable controller providing a close-to-optimal operation, while satisfying physical limits, is formulated. This controller is based on the Model Predictive Control framework and uses a linearised mean value model to optimise the predicted behaviour of the engine. Initially, the controller was applied to a 1D simulation model of a conventional light-duty Diesel engine, for which the desired closed-loop features were verified. This procedure was subsequently applied to various air-path enhancement systems. In this thesis, a turbocharger electric assistance and various concepts based on compressed gas injection were considered. The capability of these systems to improve engine response during third gear tip-in manoeuvre was quantified. This investigation was also complemented with a parametric study of how effectively each of the considered methods used its available resources. As a result, injecting compressed gas into the exhaust manifold was identified as an effective method, which to date has attracted limited attention from engine research community. The effectiveness of the exhaust manifold assistance was experimentally verified on a light-duty Diesel engine. The sensitivity of the improvements to compressed gas supply parameters was also investigated. This led to the development of the BREES system: a low component count, compressed gas based system for reducing turbo-lag. It was shown that during braking manoeuvres a tank can be charged to the level sufficient for a subsequent boost assistance event. Such a functionality was implemented with a very limited set of additional components and only minor changes to the standard engine control.