# Adaptive techniques in signal processing and connectionist models

Thesis

This thesis covers the development of a series of new methods and the application of adaptive filter theory which are combined to produce a generalised adaptive filter system which may be used to perform such tasks as pattern recognition. Firstly, the relevant background adaptive filter theory is discussed in Chapter 1 and methods and results which are important to the rest of the thesis are derived or referenced. Chapter 2 of this thesis covers the development of a new adaptive algorithm which is designed to give faster convergence than the LMS algorithm but unlike the Recursive Least Squares family of algorithms it does not require storage of a matrix with n2 elements, where n is the number of filter taps. In Chapter 3 a new extension of the LMS adaptive notch filter is derived and applied which gives an adaptive notch filter the ability to lock and track signals of varying pitch without sacrificing notch depth. This application of the LMS filter is of interest as it demonstrates a time varying filter solution to a stationary problem. The LMS filter is next extended to the multidimensional case which allows the application of LMS filters to image processing. The multidimensional filter is then applied to the problem of image registration and this new application of the LMS filter is shown to have significant advantages over current image registration methods. A consideration of the multidimensional LMS filter as a template matcher and pattern recogniser is given. In Chapter 5 a brief review of statistical pattern recognition is given, and in Chapter 6 a review of relevant connectionist models. In Chapter 7 the generalised adaptive filter is derived. This is an adaptive filter with the ability to model non-linear input-output relationships. The Volterra functional analysis of non-linear systems is given and this is combined with adaptive filter methods to give a generalised non-linear adaptive digital filter. This filter is then considered as a linear adaptive filter operating in a non-linearly extended vector space. This new filter is shown to have desirable properties as a pattern recognition system. The performance and properties of the new filter is compared with current connectionist models and results demonstrated in Chapter 8. In Chapter 9 further mathematical analysis of the networks leads to suggested methods to greatly reduce network complexity for a given problem by choosing suitable pattern classification indices and allowing it to define its own internal structure. In Chapter 10 robustness of the network to imperfections in its implementation is considered. Chapter 11 finishes the thesis with some conclusions and suggestions for future work.