# Pattern-forming in non-equilibrium quantum systems and geometrical models of matter

Thesis

This thesis is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the dynamics of polariton condensates, with particular attention to their pattern-forming capabilities. In many configurations of physical interest, the dynamics of polariton condensates can be modelled by means of a non-linear PDE which is strictly related to the Gross-Pitaevskii and the complex Ginzburg-Landau equations. Numerical simulations of this equation are used to investigate the robustness of the rotating vortex lattice which is predicted to spontaneously form in a non-equilibrium trapped condensate. An idea for a polariton-based gyroscope is then presented. The device relies on peculiar properties of non-equilibrium condensates - the possibility of controlling the vortex emission mechanism and the use of pumping strength as a control parameter - and improves on existing proposals for superfluid-based gyroscopes. Finally, the important rôle played by quantum pressure in the recently observed transition from a phase-locked but freely flowing condensate to a spatially trapped one is discussed. The second part of this thesis presents work done in the context of the geometrical models of matter framework, which aims to describe particles in terms of 4-dimensional manifolds. Conserved quantum numbers of particles are encoded in the topology of the manifold, while dynamical quantities are to be described in terms of its geometry. Two infinite families of manifolds, namely ALF gravitational instantons of types A_k and D_k, are investigated as possible models for multi-particle systems. On the basis of their topological and geometrical properties it is concluded that A_k can model a system of k+1 electrons, and D_k a system of a proton and k-1 electrons. Energy functionals which successfully reproduce the Coulomb interaction energy, and in one case also the rest masses, of these particle systems are then constructed in terms of the area and Gaussian curvature of preferred representatives of middle dimension homology. Finally, an idea for constructing multi-particle models by gluing single-particle ones is discussed.