Propulsion of Bubble-Based Acoustic Microswimmers
Acoustic microswimmers present a great potential for microfluidic applications and targeted drug delivery. Here, we introduce armored microbubbles (size range, 10–20 μm) made by three-dimensional microfabrication, which allows the bubbles to last for hours even under forced oscillations. The acoustic resonance of the armored microbubbles is found to be dictated by capillary forces and not by gas volume, and its measurements agree with a theoretical calculation. We further measure experimentally and predict theoretically the net propulsive flow generated by the bubble vibration. This flow, due to steady streaming in the fluid, can reach 100 mm/s, and is affected by the presence of nearby walls. Finally, microswimmers in motion are shown, either as spinning devices or free swimmers.