Cosmological models in energy-momentum-squared gravity
We study the cosmological effects of adding terms of higher-order in the usual energy-momentum tensor to the matter lagrangian of general relativity. This is in contrast to most studies of higher-order gravity which focus on generalising the Einstein-Hilbert curvature contribution to the lagrangian. The resulting cosmological theories give rise to field equations of similar form to several particular theories with different fundamental bases, including bulk viscous cosmology, loop quantum gravity, K-essence, and brane-world cosmologies. We find a range of exact solutions for isotropic universes, discuss their behaviours with reference to the early and late-time evolution, accelerated expansion, and the occurrence or avoidance of singularities. We briefly discuss extensions to anisotropic cosmologies and delineate the situations where the higher-order matter terms will dominate over anisotropies on approach to cosmological singularities.