Expanded Clay Aggregates for water purification
Most poor and vulnerable people such as the peri-urban, people living in poverty and some internally displaced people (IDPs) are prone to water borne diseases because they drink polluted water. In order to improve water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and to help achieve sustainable development goal (SDGs) six, a novel nano-adsorbent material, Expanded Clay Aggregates (ECAs) adsorbents produced from clay and biomass was developed. The raw materials for the production of ECAs adsorbents were sourced locally, processed and characterized by multiple means to uncover their salient properties in the first instance. The synthesized materials were formulated to form composites which were calcined to temperatures above 10000C to produce ECA adsorbents. The adsorbents were tested on multi-filtration capabilities of known pollutants (Eshchericia coli, Phosphates, Nitrates, Arsenic and Lead). Excellent results with high efficiencies were achieved for both filtration and adsorption studies. The ability of the ECAs to remove contaminants was based on the fact that they are processed to nano-scale, which offered larger surface area, high pore volume and other novel properties required for filtration. The research has contributed towards finding a sustainable solution to the problem of inability of majority of Nigerians, Africans and other third world countries to have sustainable access to potable, safe and affordable drinking water. The research outcome has high potential for commercialization, which can lead to mass production of water filters.