Investigation of Lead-Free Bismuth Perovskite by Numerical Simulation using Scaps
The theoretical study of methylammonium bismuth halide, (CH 3 NH 3 ) 3 Bi 2 I 9 , was simulated using SCAPS 1D software package. The effect of the bismuth perovskite absorber layer thickness on the solar cell performance was investigated using three different materials (organic and inorganic) materials such as Cu 2 O, CuI, and spiro-OMeTAD as hole transporting layer (HTL), and four different materials (organic and inorganic) materials such as ZnO, TiO 2 , PCBM, and P 3 HT as electron transporting layer (ETL). The performance of the cell largely depends on the thickness of the absorbing layer, and on the type and combination of ETL and HTL used. The device with Cu 2 O as the HTL and ZnO as the ETL showed the best performance at an absorber thickness of 200 nm. The effect of temperature was carried out on the various cell structure, which exhibited different responses to increasing temperature, showing again that the dependence of the solar cell characteristics on the transport layers. Generally, there was a change in the performance of the solar cell devices as the temperature changes. Results obtained from this work showed that to get the optimum cell performance at a low cost, the device should be fabricated with inorganic transport materials, this will help in solving the issue of poor stability of perovskite solar cells.