Multigrid Relaxation Methods and the Analysis of Lightness, Shading and Flow
Image analysis problems, posed mathematically as variational principles or as partial differential equations, are amenable to numerical solution by relaxation algorithms that are local, iterative, and often parallel. Although they are well suited structurally for implementation on massively parallel, locally-interconnected computational architectures, such distributed algorithms are seriously handicapped by an inherent inefficiency at propagating constraints between widely separated processing elements. Hence, they converge extremely slowly when confronted by the large representations necessary for low-level vision. Application of multigrid methods can overcome this drawback, as we established in previous work on 3-D surface reconstruction. In this paper, we develop efficient multiresolution iterative algorithms for computing lightness, shape-from-shading, and optical flow, and we evaluate the performance of these algorithms on Synthetic images. The multigrid methodology that we describe is broadly applicable in low-level vision. Notably, it is an appealing strategy to use in conjunction with regularization analysis for the efficient solution of a wide range of ill-posed visual reconstruction problems.