A Theory of Human Stereo Vision
An algorithm is proposed for solving the stereoscopic matching problem. The algorithm consists of five steps: 1.) Each image is filtered with bar masks of four sizes that vary with eccentricity; the equivalent filters are about one octave wide. 2.) Zero-crossings of the mask values are localized, and positions that correspond to terminations are found. 3.) For each mask size, matching takes place between pairs of zero crossings or terminations of the same sign in the two images, for a range of disparities up to about the width of the mask's central region. 4.) Wide masks can control vergence movements, thus causing small masks to come into correspondence. 5.) When a correspondence is achieved, it is written into a dynamic buffer, called the 2-1/2-D sketch. It is shown that this proposal provides a theoretical framework for most existing psychophysical and neurophysiological data about stereopsis. Several critical experimental predictions are also made, for instance about the size of Panum's area under various conditions. The results of such experiments would tell us whether, for example, cooperativity is necessary for the fusion process.