Recognition by Prototypes
A scheme for recognizing 3D objects from single 2D images is introduced. The scheme proceeds in two stages. In the first stage, the categorization stage, the image is compared to prototype objects. For each prototype, the view that most resembles the image is recovered, and, if the view is found to be similar to the image, the class identity of the object is determined. In the second stage, the identification stage, the observed object is compared to the individual models of its class, where classes are expected to contain objects with relatively similar shapes. For each model, a view that matches the image is sought. If such a view is found, the object's specific identity is determined. The advantage of categorizing the object before it is identified is twofold. First, the image is compared to a smaller number of models, since only models that belong to the object's class need to be considered. Second, the cost of comparing the image to each model in a classis very low, because correspondence is computed once for the whoel class. More specifically, the correspondence and object pose computed in the categorization stage to align the prototype with the image are reused in the identification stage to align the individual models with the image. As a result, identification is reduced to a series fo simple template comparisons. The paper concludes with an algorithm for constructing optimal prototypes for classes of objects.