Pose-Invariant Face Recognition Using Real and Virtual Views
The problem of automatic face recognition is to visually identify a person in an input image. This task is performed by matching the input face against the faces of known people in a database of faces. Most existing work in face recognition has limited the scope of the problem, however, by dealing primarily with frontal views, neutral expressions, and fixed lighting conditions. To help generalize existing face recognition systems, we look at the problem of recognizing faces under a range of viewpoints. In particular, we consider two cases of this problem: (i) many example views are available of each person, and (ii) only one view is available per person, perhaps a driver's license or passport photograph. Ideally, we would like to address these two cases using a simple view-based approach, where a person is represented in the database by using a number of views on the viewing sphere. While the view-based approach is consistent with case (i), for case (ii) we need to augment the single real view of each person with synthetic views from other viewpoints, views we call 'virtual views'. Virtual views are generated using prior knowledge of face rotation, knowledge that is 'learned' from images of prototype faces. This prior knowledge is used to effectively rotate in depth the single real view available of each person. In this thesis, I present the view-based face recognizer, techniques for synthesizing virtual views, and experimental results using real and virtual views in the recognizer.